Adjuncts is the term given to grains and cereals used in the brewing process that are supplemental to primary ingredients. Often they are used to lower the expense in massive scales, but also provide different character and flavor to the beer.
Adjuncts range include corn, rice, sorghum, rye, wheat, and barley. All of which vary in preparation and brewing. Aside from a cheaper alternative, some of the benefits of using adjuncts can include providing additional flavor and adding additional starches for which will ultimately break down into fermentable sugars. They are also known for diluting the nitrogen contents of the beer which, in the end, can lower the haze of the beer. Adjuncts can also be used to alter the color.
These adjuncts come in a few different forms including grits, flaked, flour, syrup, and whole roasted grains can be included as well.
Grits can be achieved by soaking the corns and removing the husk, thus leaving the embryo which is the high quality portion for brewing due its starch contents. The flaked form is achieved by mirowaving the grits and passing through a flaker. The flour, of course, simply takes the heated grits or flakes and grinds to a powder. The flour is also sometimes processed into pellets for use.