Farnesene Overview

Farnesene is one of the more interesting oils due to its applications and effect in nature. Farnesene volume in the oil composition of hops is generally very low (< l%), although it can be relatively high in noble or aromatic varieties. It is also a sesquiterpine and occurs naturally in many plants including fruits such as apple, orange, mandarin, lime, and grapefruit, and also in pears, ginger, nutmeg, basil, and hops.

Something unique about the compound is that it is actually emitted from a species of aphids as an alarm or defense mechanism. The odor is a signal to other aphids that there is a threat. Its interesting to consider if the the plants development of these oils isi a genetic defense mechanism itself. Oxidation of Farnesene is also linked to the deterioration of fruits such as apples and bananas, and is known as superfical scald and chilling injury respectively.

Farnesene Fragrance

Farnesene is also used widely in the perfume industry due to its beautiful smell. It is also used in masks and powders. Farnesene's fragrance has been compared to that of magnolia flowers and having citrusy notes with green, woody, vegetative odor with hints of lavender. Its contribution to beer is significant for aromatic qualities.

Farnesene Flavor

Farnesene is also used in many food applications due to its taking flavor. It adds essence of herbs and organic wood-like offsets. This characteristic makes it a great supplement in teas and juices. Farnesene is a pale yellow to clear yellow liquid.

Farnesene and Brewing

High farnesene levels are favorable for both aroma and flavor in brewing. Farnesene deterioates rapidly with oxidation and can be preserved by sealed refrigerated storage. Farnesene's influence on aroma is worthy of displaying its oil volume composition on packaging, but this is not generally the case. Hops with farnesene are more appropriate for late additions to the boil, and dry hopping.

Hap Varieties by Farnesene Oil Volume

Hops VarietyFarnesene Oil VolumeUsage
Hallertauer Tradition Hops% of Total OilAroma
Hallertauer Mittelfrüh Hops% of Total OilAroma
Vanguard Hops% of Total OilAroma
Smaragd Hops% of Total OilAroma
East Kent Golding Hops% of Total OilAroma
Golding (U.K.) Hops% of Total OilAroma
Whitbread Golding Variety Hops% of Total OilDual-Purpose
Northdown Hops% of Total OilDual-Purpose
Golding (U.S.) Hops% of Total OilAroma
Saaz Hops% of Total OilAroma
Lublin (Lubelski) Hops% of Total OilAroma
Magnum Hops% of Total OilBittering
Liberty Hops% of Total OilAroma
Polnisher Lublin Hops% of Total OilAroma
Saaz (U.S.) Hops% of Total OilAroma
Hallertauer Magnum Hops% of Total OilBittering
Ultra Hops% of Total OilAroma
Fuggle (U.K.) Hops% of Total OilAroma
Yeoman Hops% of Total OilBittering
Hallertau (U.S.) Hops% of Total OilAroma
Styrian Golding Hops% of Total OilAroma
Mount Hood Hops% of Total OilAroma
Pacific Hallertau Hops% of Total OilAroma
Perle (GR) Hops% of Total OilDual-Purpose
Glacier Hops% of Total OilDual-Purpose
Apollo Hops% of Total OilBittering
Hallertau Hops% of Total OilAroma
Hersbrucker Hops% of Total OilAroma
Super Alpha Hops% of Total OilDual-Purpose
Perle (US) Hops% of Total OilDual-Purpose
Bramling Cross Hops% of Total OilDual-Purpose
Outeniqua Hops% of Total OilBittering
Marynka Hops% of Total OilDual-Purpose
Pacific Jade Hops% of Total OilBittering
Challenger Hops% of Total OilDual-Purpose
Merkur Hops% of Total OilDual-Purpose
Phoenix Hops% of Total OilDual-Purpose
Brewers Gold Hops% of Total OilBittering
Northern Brewer (GR) Hops% of Total OilDual-Purpose
Tettnanger (GR) Hops% of Total OilDual-Purpose
Willamette Hops% of Total OilAroma
Hallertauer Taurus Hops% of Total OilDual-Purpose
Santiam Hops% of Total OilAroma
Bullion Hops% of Total OilBittering
Northern Brewer (U.S.) Hops% of Total OilDual-Purpose
Saphir Hops% of Total OilAroma
Pacific Gem Hops% of Total OilBittering
Southern Cross Hops% of Total OilDual-Purpose
Hersbrucker Pure Hops% of Total OilAroma
Orion Hops% of Total OilDual-Purpose
Fuggle (U.S.) Hops% of Total OilAroma
Admiral Hops% of Total OilBittering
Southern Brewer Hops% of Total OilBittering
Southern Promise Hops% of Total OilDual-Purpose
Chinook Hops% of Total OilDual-Purpose
Opal Hops% of Total OilDual-Purpose
Spalt Hops% of Total OilAroma
Columbus Hops% of Total OilDual-Purpose
Strisselspalt Hops% of Total OilAroma
Super Styrian (Aurora) Hops% of Total OilDual-Purpose
Pacific Sunrise Hops% of Total OilBittering
Summit Hops% of Total OilBittering
First Gold Hops% of Total OilDual-Purpose
Pioneer Hops% of Total OilDual-Purpose
Crystal Hops% of Total OilAroma
Super Galena Hops% of Total OilBittering
AlphAroma Hops% of Total OilDual-Purpose
Sterling Hops% of Total OilDual-Purpose
Tettnanger (US) Hops% of Total OilDual-Purpose
Nugget Hops% of Total OilDual-Purpose
Target Hops% of Total OilDual-Purpose
Palisade Hops% of Total OilAroma
Southern Star Hops% of Total OilBittering
Hüller Bitterer Hops% of Total OilDual-Purpose
Smooth Cone Hops% of Total OilDual-Purpose
Bravo Hops% of Total OilBittering
Green Bullet Hops% of Total OilDual-Purpose
Ahtanum Hops% of Total OilAroma
Satus Hops% of Total OilBittering
Warrior Hops% of Total OilBittering
Spalter Select Hops% of Total OilAroma
Calicross Hops% of Total OilDual-Purpose
Centennial Hops% of Total OilDual-Purpose
Cluster Hops% of Total OilDual-Purpose
Pilgrim Hops% of Total OilDual-Purpose
Hallertau Aroma Hops% of Total OilAroma
Cascade (U.S.) Hops% of Total OilDual-Purpose
Victoria Hops% of Total OilDual-Purpose
Herald Hops% of Total OilDual-Purpose
Simcoe Hops% of Total OilDual-Purpose
Galena Hops% of Total OilBittering
Horizon Hops% of Total OilDual-Purpose
Sticklebract Hops% of Total OilDual-Purpose
AMARILLO® Hops% of Total OilDual-Purpose
Pride of Kent Hops% of Total OilBittering
Riwaka Hops% of Total OilAroma
Pride of Ringwood Hops% of Total OilBittering
Motueka Hops% of Total OilAroma
Super Pride Hops% of Total OilBittering
Eroica Hops% of Total OilBittering
Newport Hops% of Total OilBittering
Tardif de Bourgogne Hops% of Total OilAroma
D Saaz Hops% of Total OilUnknown
Zeus Hops% of Total OilUnknown
California Cluster Hops% of Total OilUnknown
Tomahawk Hops% of Total OilUnknown
B Saaz Hops% of Total OilUnknown
Saazer Hops% of Total OilUnknown
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